CO-Horts Blog

Thursday, July 27, 2023

What's going on with my Veggies?


Today we’ll go into a few problems that you may or may not be seeing in your vegetable garden. I’m dividing the topics into two categories: Biotic and Abiotic. Biotic problems mean those issues that arise due to a biological, or living agent, whether it be insect, disease, or human! Abiotic are those that are outside of the above category, so can be physiological, environmental, or cultural in origin. Sometimes the line can be a little less than distinct between the two as we’ll see in several examples. Let’s get sleuthing.


Powdery Mildew – this can show up on many vegetable garden plants including squash, cucumber, beans, even peas and carrots can be susceptible although at least here in Colorado we don’t see a lot of that. Typically, powdery mildew begins to make an appearance mid to late in the growing season. It is especially prevalent in gardens that are planted closely, and those that are watered with overhead sprinklers. Planting with adequate spacing and watering the soil not the plant are two great ways to prevent the onset of the disease. Powdery mildew is a fungus which grows thin layers of mycelium along the surface of the leaf or fruit (although growth on fruit is less common.)

David B. Langston, University of Georgia,

Be aware that some varieties of squash or zucchini have patterns on them that may look similar to powdery mildew. If you aren’t sure, you can send a picture to your local Extension office or you can look for patterns vs. a more random distribution. Patterns are likely natural, more random is more likely to be powdery mildew.

If your garden succumbs to powdery mildew every year in your cucurbits, your melons, squash, cucumbers etc. there are a few different management options. You can trellis your vine crops and grow them vertically; this improves air flow and reduces ambient humidity. You can also remove the oldest leaves as the plant grows, leaving 5-7 of the youngest leaves at any time. Finally, if summer squash is the disease-ridden culprit in your landscape, you can succession plant, plant new squash about a month after your first crop, rogue the first set out once powdery mildew begins to establish.

Early Blight in tomato and potato

Paul Bachi, University of Kentucky Research 

and Education Center,

A very common disease, the same one that caused the Irish Potato Famine in Ireland, shows up regularly in our tomatoes, especially those that have come from saved seeds if proper sanitation practices weren’t followed. Symptoms can include brown spots on older leaves, brown concentric rings on stems, leathery/black spots on fruit which may drop from the plant. To manage you can plant resistant varieties, be sure to succession plant (at least two years between using the same soil), increase airflow. You can also remove leaves with leaf spot and dispose of them outside your home compost system (landfill or commercial composting facility). Fungicides are rarely effective in a home setting and are not usually recommended.

William M. Brown Jr.,

Tomato spotted wilt virus – Another of the diseases that can impact tomatoes, tomato spotted wilt virus is another common disease seen in home gardens. This disease can be transmitted by an insect called a thrip, when it feeds on the tomato it can infest the plant with the TSW virus. Leaves may develop a cupped appearance, with the bottoms becoming bronze and then dying (leaving brown or black tissue). Most typically it can be seen on fruit with concentric rings developing across the fruit. Fruit is fine to eat but may have a poor flavor. It is best to purchase resistant varieties if you’ve had issues in the past. Pull and dispose of the infected plant.

Brenda Kennedy, University of Kentucky,

Gerald Holmes, Strawberry Center, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo,

Blossom End Rot – Blossom End Rot occurs in quite a few plant species including tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini, squash etc.  We often begin to see it as plants first ripen in the early summer and into mid-summer. While it is technically caused by poor calcium in the fruit, this does not necessarily mean that there is insufficient calcium in the soil. Crushing up eggshells or adding calcium to water is not likely to rectify the issue. Rather, it is good to practice good “cultural care” by this I mean you want to make sure you are watering, mulching, and fertilizing the plants as they need to be cared for. Erratic watering and cold soils lead to most blossom end rot issues, so look to your hose and your temperatures before amending with nutrients that are likely not lacking.

Pollywogging / distorted growth/poor pollination
in beans or cucurbits can be caused by several different issues. First off, if you saved your seed but did not control for cross pollination you may have some interesting hybrids on hand. Cross pollination issues will only show up in fruit grown from saved seeds, not from those that cross pollinate this year. Rather it will show up if the seed is saved and planted in the following growing season. However, far more commonly distorted growth is caused by poor pollination. If a bean, cucumber, or zucchini is insufficiently pollinated and continues to grow you may see one half of the fruit mature, but the other remain small.

A good way to ensure distorted growth does not occur is to encourage pollinators throughout your garden. Avoid spraying insecticides unless necessary and grow flowers throughout your space to feed your pollinator friends.

Possible herbicide damage on homeowner tomato

Dr. Joey Williamson, Clemson University.

Curling leaves – can have many causes but the most common are temperature, irrigation issues, and herbicide. Cool and warm temperatures can cause strange growth in leaves. Irrigating too much, too little, or erratically can also lead to leaf curl. If soil dries out too much, or is too saturated, leaves may begin to curl. Finally, some herbicides may cause cupping or curling or other distorted growth. Be cautious when purchasing manure, mulch straw etc. as one particular herbicide, Aminopyralid, can persist in these materials and may cause problems for your vegetable garden growth. If you suspect you have herbicide in your manure or your mulch do a test growth, if distorted growth appears remove if possible. Check out for details on herbicide issues in vegetable crops.

As always, check with your local Extension Office to get more information on this, or any other garden issue. Happy Gardening!

Monday, July 17, 2023

The Amazing Summertime Blues

The backyard entry garden greets people with
native flowers including penstemon and flax.
Posted by: Todd Hagenbuch, CSU Routt County Extension

The only thing that really makes me really blue in the summer is knowing that it is but a fleeting moment for us in the Yampa Valley. This year that seems especially true as the winter snows stayed longer than usual and we had an exceptionally short spring. As a result, our growing season seems even more compressed than usual…which is saying a lot. Those winter snows and spring storms, however, provided water for a spectacular season of blooming native plants, and not only those growing in wild areas.

As part of a landscaping plan that focuses on reducing water use while also providing bountiful color, natives have played a key role in making our family’s yard a sea of red, white, and blue over the July 4th holiday. Rocky Mountain penstemon plays the starring role for blue, with flax and lupine playing a supporting role. Red columbine, white snow-in-summer, and white campion help complete the colors of our flag, with some annuals in pots thrown in for good measure. But it’s the blues that really make a statement.

Penestemon rises above the flax with
snow-in-summer in the background
Rocky Mountain Penstemon (Pensemon strictus) is a long-lived native that grows naturally in sagebrush pastures, meadows, scrub oak stands, and openings in aspen/spruce mixed forests. It has blue flowers that range in shade from light blue to almost purple, with most in my yard blooming a shade of royal blue. Being adapted to many of our local soils and ecological sites, it is an easy-keeper in the garden and requires little, if any care. Pollinators love it, with not only bees and wasps visiting it, but hummingbirds, too, on occasion. It will spread and reseed, so if you don’t have an area where it can run free, note that some control may be needed to keep it in check.

Blue flax (Linum lewisii) has been a favorite of mine for years. In fact, when my wife and I got married 17 years ago (!), we gave packets of flax seeds to our wedding attendees to plant in their yards to remember the event as our colors were pale yellow and flax blue. I love seeing flax bloom in pastures, on hillsides, and along roadways, where it is a favorite reclamation plant. This fine-leafed plant is a perennial, and if you save the seeds and spread them, you can get stands to spread, even though I don’t find it to be aggressive. It is exceptionally drought tolerant and tolerates most of our native soils.

Silver lupine (Lupinus argenteus) is another native that we enjoy having in our yard. Our particular plants are a blue that tends toward lavender, but they can be many shades of blue, purple, and even pink! Lupine are very drought resistant and are liked by all of the same pollinators as the penstemon. Note if you have livestock that propagation of this plant isn’t warranted because it does have toxic principles that make it unsafe for grazing, but in a yard can be a great addition. The fact that it is a nitrogen fixer and helps add nitrogen to our lean soils is a real bonus.

If you don’t have the summertime blues, find a friend who will save you some seed from one of these pollinator-friendly, low-water-use natives; you’ll be thrilled you did!

Lupine in the foreground with penstemon and 
campion filling in behind

Thursday, July 6, 2023

Don't Give EAB a Ride!

Posted by: Denyse Schrenker, Eagle County Extension

People were seeing fireworks last week when it was confirmed that emerald ash borer has made its way to the Western Slope. Two new pockets of emerald ash borer (EAB) in Littleton and Carbondale were recently discovered. These new locations are well outside of the known infested area north of Denver: see Colorado State Forest Service map for known EAB locations. In case you missed it, Emerald Ash Borer is an invasive insect that feeds under the bark of trees during its larval stage. This feeding stops the flow of nutrients and water and gradually kills the tree over a 3 to 5 year timespan. All true ash species (Fraxinus spp.) are hosts for EAB. Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanicus) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) are commonly grown in Colorado and both are highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, including their cultivars such as the popular white ash variety, ‘Autumn Purple Ash’. Mountain-ash (Sorbus spp.) are not susceptible to emerald ash borer as they are not a true ash.

Damage from emerald ash borer. Photo credit: Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

How is this different from mountain pine beetles?
Although mountain pine beetle has killed a large number of trees as well, it is a native insect that has periodic outbreaks. The outbreaks are a naturally occurring cycle (though they can be prolonged by human activity) that will eventually end and the surviving trees will regenerate the forest over time. Since emerald ash borer is not native to North America it has no native predators to halt outbreaks so it will continue as long as there are ash trees present.

What Can I Do?

White ash tree. Photo credit: Richard Webb,

Don’t Move Firewood (remind your friends & family too!)
With camping season in full swing, don’t be tempted to save a couple bucks by taking firewood with you. Always burn firewood locally and buy seasoned and kiln-dried wood as many harmful insects, not just EAB, can hitch a ride in firewood. You can learn more about this at
Use firewood locally, emerald ash borer and other harmful insects can hitch rides in firewood.

Use Best Tree Care Practices
Learn to Identify Ash Trees
White ash leaf. Photo credit: Paul Wray, Iowa State University,

Learn More about Emerald Ash Borer
Emerald ash borer in exit hole. Photo credit: Debbie Miller, USDA Forest Service,

Make a Plan
If you are in close proximity to an outbreak, start making a plan for your ash trees. Contact your local extension office for more information.