CO-Horts Blog

Monday, November 14, 2022

A Comparison of Two Broccolis and their Side-shoot Production

 By Yvette Henson, San Miguel Basin CSU Extension

Since 2011, San Miguel Basin CSU Extension Colorado Master Gardeners have grown different crops under different covers in our High Altitude Season Extension (HASE) research trials.  We want to know which covers, if any, extend the season and improve yield and quality for whatever crop we are growing that year.  Another goal of the HASE research beds is to find varieties that perform well in our short and cool summer growing season. 

In 2016, we grew 3 varieties of broccoli under 3 different season extension covers and a ‘control’ (no cover).  We chose varieties that would continue to produce side shoots after the main head had been harvested.  Out of the 3 varieties we chose, ‘Solstice’, ‘Umpqua’ and ‘Nutribud’, ‘Nutribud was our favorite because it had the best yield, flavor and nutrition.

Yield of Broccoli
2016 HASE Broccoli Trials
This year, I grew broccoli in my home garden.  When I was planning my garden, I didn’t know if I still had seeds for ‘Nutribud’, so just in case, I bought some seeds at the garden center of the variety ‘Belstar’, an F1 hybrid. (For this blog what matters is to know that seeds from hybrids usually don’t produce plants that are ‘true to type’)  The seed packet said that ‘Belstar’ would continue to produce side shoots after the main head was harvested.  That is what I wanted- I care more about getting an extended harvest through the season than a single harvest of large heads.  After all, I cut them up to prepare them to eat, don’t you?   And since broccoli is a relatively big plant, I wanted to get as much food out of the space they take up as possible. 

‘Nutribud’ broccoli is an open pollinated variety.  (If you save seeds from an open pollinated variety grown correctly, the next generation of plants from those seeds will come ‘true to type’.)  Dr. Alan Kapuler de-hybridized a hybrid variety called ‘Pacman’ and named it ‘Nutribud’ because in a UC Davis test on nutrition in different broccoli varieties, 'Nutribud' came out highest in free glutamine, a building block of protein: good for the brain and healing for the body!

'Nutribud' broccoli head, 2016 HASE Trials, early August 2016.
Turns out, I did have seeds for ‘Nutribud’ at home so I decided to plant 4 plants of each variety.  3 of the ‘Nutribud’ plants produced full-sized heads at the end of July.  The 'Belstar' broccoli produced full-sized heads by mid-August and both varieties continued to produce side shoots until killing temperatures at the beginning of November. 

First 3 heads of 'Belstar' broccoli
and the second side shoots of 'Nutribud' broccoli, etc.
August 15, 2022.
What blew my mind was the difference in size between the side shoots of the 2 varieties.  ‘Nutribud’ continuously grew bite-sized side shoots from the axils in the leaves after the heads were cut.  However, the ‘Belstar’ plants produced head-sized side shoots from large side branches!  I was amazed because none of the other varieties that we grew in 2016, produced side-shoots the size of broccoli heads!  They all produced smaller shoots, like the ‘Nutribud”. 

'Belstar' side shoot (left) & 'Nutribud' side shoots (right)
September 13, 2022
I didn’t do a thorough job weighing each harvest, especially at the beginning, so I don’t have data to show which variety actually produced the most edible broccoli, but it was close.  I could harvest many 'Nutribud' side shoots weekly but it took several weeks for the 'Belstar' side-shoots to grow to their larger size.  

Last harvest of 'Belstar' side-shoots (bottom)
and next-to-last harvest of 'Nutribud' side shoots (top)
October 21, 2022
An advantage of the ‘Belstar’ would be for gardeners or farmers who want to produce 'heads' over a longer period of time.  The advantage of 'Nutribud' would be nutrition.  I personally love the flavor of 'Nutribud' plus the shoots are very tender.


Tuesday, November 8, 2022

Evergreen Perennials


Just as we need to settle into the increasingly shorter days and colder nights, we also need to adjust to the bleak landscapes brought on by winter. Annuals die, perennials die-back, and woody plants lose all their leaves, leaving a bleak landscape, indeed! Yet, amidst all this barrenness, there are some plants that stand out, full of color and life: the evergreens! We’re all well aware of the various evergreen trees that fill our Colorado landscapes, but how well do we know the evergreen perennials that dot those same landscapes? Here’s a few to take note of this winter:

Arabis caucasica (Rock Cress) is a low-growing, creeping evergreen that sometimes takes on a mounding habit. This plant prefers sun and can adapt to various moisture levels. In the early spring, Arabis caucasica features a profuse, mass flowering of delicate, white blooms. The foliage is fairly unique, often hairy with a toothed margin, and provides a nice splash of texture and color throughout the winter. 

Arabis caucasica in late fall. Photo by Hania Oleszak.

Armeria maritima (Sea Thrift) is one of my personal favorites. The evergreen foliage appears grass-like and persists throughout the winter. In the early summer, the cutest clover-like flowers bloom on leafless flower scapes. This whimsical plant is quite hardy, doing well in sunny, dry, and salty environments. 

Armeria maritima in late fall. Blooming occurs in early summer, but can continue flowering if deadheaded (even into the fall!). Photo by Hania Oleszak.

Cerastium tomentosum (Snow-in-Summer) is an aggressive, evergreen ground cover. This plant prefers sunny, dry conditions and can do well in poor soils. Cerastium tomentosum features white flower blooms in the early summer and textured, hairy, grayish foliage in the wintertime. 

Cerastium tomentosum in late fall. Photo by Hania Oleszak. 

Delosperma nubigenum (Yellow Ice Plant) is a low-growing, semi-evergreen succulent that is being bred for greater cold hardiness. Preferring sunny and dry conditions, Delosperma nubigenum is often found in rock gardens. In the summer, this plant features a mass flowering of yellow flowers; in the winter, the jellybean-like leaves take on a purplish tinge as the cold sets in.

Delosperma nubigenum in fall; note the red/purple tinge coming on. Photo from Conservation Garden Park. 

Iberis sempervivens (Evergreen Candytuft) is a low-growing, spreading evergreen. It prefers full sun to partial shade and is adaptable to various moisture levels. In the spring, Iberis sempervivens features blooms of white or pink flowers, and can potentially have secondary blooms in the fall. In the winter, Iberis sempervivens provides a nice texture to the landscape through its linear, evergreen foliage.  

Iberis sempervivens foliage. Photo from Oregon State University.

Do you have a favorite evergreen perennial? Let us know below!

Wednesday, November 2, 2022

Deadly Plants: The Castor Bean

 Posted by: Alison O'Connor, Larimer County Extension

Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a tropical beauty native to east Africa that is extremely showy, but also incredibly poisonous. It’s commonly planted in the landscape as an annual to provide structure, color, and texture. I first met castor bean during a family vacation in northern Minnesota as a young teenager – more on this later.

Castor bean leaves and seedpods

In frost-free climates, this semi-woody plant can grow up to 40 feet tall, but in Colorado, you can expect annual growth of up to 10 feet. It won’t survive temperatures below 32 degrees. It’s an absolute garden showstopper with vibrant red, pink, or green seedpods that are spikey and persistent in late summer. Leaves are star-shaped and up to 18 inches across on long petioles. The Latin Ricinus translates to “tick”, as the seedpods are said to resemble blood-filled ticks. The seeds are small and look a little like black-eyed peas.

Large, showy leaves of the castor bean (no, it's not THAT plant)

The plant is in the Euphorbiaceae family (think poinsettias and spurge), so there will be milky sap with any broken plant part. Those with allergies to latex may have reactions to the sap, so wash your hands and wear gloves when handling the plant.

But the sap really is a minor issue when it comes to poisonous nature of this plant. The seeds are filled with ricin, one of the world’s deadliest natural poisons, a blood-coagulating protein. Ricin is an estimated 6,000 times more poisonous than cyanide!

Castor bean seeds [photo from]

Back to northern Minnesota…

My brother was a budding horticulturalist (and still is!) and he came across this plant during our trip. Some kids collect rocks, but Jeffrey collected plant parts and seeds. Not knowing what it was, he picked off a few of the seeds, put them in a black plastic film canister (remember those?!), and brought them home.

We had a beagle mix named Bosley growing up. He was a great dog but an absolute food hound. What Bosley consumed was legendary – entire loaves of bread, charcoal from the grill, two pounds of Starlite mints, mouse traps baited with peanut butter, an entire jar of peanuts – he ate anything and everything. He was a counter surfer and was known to steal boiling hot French fries off the oven tray.

Sweet Bosley - look at that face! His obsession for food was legendary.

A few months after our trip “up north”, the film canister was knocked off Jeffrey’s dresser, ended up on the floor, and sweet hungry Bosley ate some of the seeds. And he got really, really sick. Our family vet, Dr. Fred, suspected that he ingested something poisonous and eventually we figured out the puzzle, but only after we had the seeds identified. None of us realized how poisonous the seeds were (4-8 seeds can kill an adult human). Boz was in tough shape in ICU and we were all nervous wrecks.

Fortunately, with the help of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center and their toxicology lab, Bosley survived. His legend lives on since Dr. Fred wrote up a scientific publication about his treatment for him – Boz has a refereed publication! I remember picking up Bosley from the vet. He was a bit sluggish and a little worse for wear but recovered in time…and continued his quest to eat anything and everything his entire life. Fortunately, there are now antidotes available for any accidental poisonings that occur.

Interestingly, the poison ricin is being investigated as an anti-cancer agent – another common name for castor bean is “Palm of Christ”. And maybe you took castor oil to help you with heart burn or constipation? Don’t worry about being poisoned. Ricin is water soluble and is not released during the pressing process.

Castor bean really is beautiful!

The plant grows easily from seed (just limit how many you purchase online to avoid the watching eyes of the FBI) and needs regular water in the summer. But just heed caution when it flowers and produces seed. If you have young kids or hungry dogs in the landscape, it’s best to admire it in photos instead.

Friday, October 28, 2022

Hallowe'en Herbage

 Posted by John Murgel, Douglas County Horticulture and Natural Resources Agent

Every plant on earth wants you dead.  They just haven’t all figured out precisely how to do that.  Yet.

 Because Hallowe’en is on the way soon, we thought we’d take the next couple of blog posts to talk about some terrifying plants.  Mind you, lots of frightening flora are out there—but we’re talking about the really, really scary ones. 

 What makes a plant terrifying?  Certainly some plants have long human associations with the macabre (the cannibal tomato, Solanum uporo, comes to mind), some are ugly to look upon or repulsively stinky (corpse-flower cologne, anyone?), and (many) more are poisonous to some degree.  We’re going to focus on the poison kind.

 Plant poisons are typically intentionally manufactured compounds that are designed for defense.  Some are aimed at insects, some at vertebrate herbivores, still others at fungi or other plants.  Many of these compounds have been hugely beneficial to human health in the form of pharmaceuticals or precursors thereto.  Others have been harnessed to attack insect pests in agriculture.  Still more have been used by humans for their mind-altering effects, or to flavor food.  With plant poisons, it’s a game of dosage.  Just the right amount can be useful.  Take too much though, and it could be “game over.”

  In the next post you’ll read about one of the most famously poisonous plants.  You might run across it, and you might not.  Here, though, are some of the monsters that could be lurking in your home, perhaps at this very moment

green beans
 1. Beans.  Many members of the bean family are famously poisonous—and the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is among them!  Beans (which are the seeds of the bean plants) contain defensive compounds known as lectins that can really cause trouble in mammalian digestive systems.  A few undercooked (or worse, raw) dry beans can provide a dose of lectins large enough to cause intestinal bleeding and “circulatory collapse.”  Thankfully, adequately cooking the beans will destroy the toxins—just don’t serve them up al dente! (Not all beans produce the same amount of lectins and not everyone is equally sensitive; Lima beans and kidney beans pack the biggest punch among commonly eaten varieties).

raw almonds

 2. Almonds and Apricots.  The rose family also contains many poisonous members, and many of those are plants that produce fleshy fruits and seeds that people like to eat.  The poisons in this case are cyanogenic, meaning that they generate cyanide once broken down—in the case of these plants, in the digestive tract.  Apricot seeds (found inside the central pit) are the most poisonous.  Several published cases report fatal and near-fatal poisonings from apricot seeds, which have become popular as alternative medicines.  Most almonds do not produce much of the compounds and are easily processed by the body, but bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus var amara) produce more.  As few as five bitter almonds can produce fatal cyanide poisoning.  

3. Potatoes.  You may know that potatoes are members of the nightshade family (along with tomatoes

potatoes in soil

and eggplant).  All parts of potato plants contain toxins known as glycoalkaloids; usually potato tubers contain very low amounts. However, differences exist between environments and among tubers of different ages or storage histories.  Eating green potatoes or potatoes that have sprouted can be risky—poisoning is unlikely to kill you, but can cause days (yes, days) of abdominal disfunction, and at higher doses low blood pressure and neurological disorders. Unlike the lectins in beans, alkaloids are only minimal affected by cooking. On the bright side, some of these spud-borne compounds have shown promise as anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. 

 I don’t know about you, but I won’t be looking at my fries the same way again.


Tuesday, October 25, 2022

CSU Relentless Gardener Podcast 
By CSU Horticulture Agent Linda Langelo

 Photo credit: Wikipedia, Mt. Elbert

As a gardener in Colorado, are you relentless in your efforts? Want to know how to improve
as a gardener? Tune-in on Spotify and listen to our horticultural topics. Let me share with
you the topics that have been published throughout this year:

With guest speaker CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

Turf Renovation:
With guest speaker, CSU Turf Specialist Tony Koski.

Turf Problems:
With guest speaker, CSU Turf Specialist Tony Koski.

Spotted Lantern Fly:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

Pollinator Habitats:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

Native Bee Watch:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

Japanese Beetles:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

Emerald Ash Borer:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

Beneficial Insects:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Lisa Mason from Arapahoe County.

High and Dry Gardens:
With guest speaker, CSU San Miguel Basin Extension Director Horticulture, 
Natural Resources, Agriculture, Family Consumer Sciences, 4-H Youth Agent,
Yvette Henson.

Seed Libraries:
With guest speaker, CSU San Miguel Basin Extension Director Horticulture,
Natural Resources, Agriculture, Family Consumer Sciences, 4-H Youth Agent,
Yvette Henson.

Benefits of Trees:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Alison O'Conner from Larimer

Caring for Your New Tree:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Alison O'Connor from Larimer

Choosing the Best Spot for Your Tree:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Alison O'Connor from Larimer 

Tips for Tree Selection in Colorado:
With guest speaker, CSU Horticulture Agent, Alison O'Connor from Larimer

Grow & Give: Past Results:
With guest speaker, CSU Statewide Master Gardener Coordinator, Katie Dunker.

Grow & Give What Does Grow & Give Have to Offer:
With guest speaker, CSU Statewide Master Gardener Coordinator, Katie Dunker.

Grow and Give: How Did Grow and Give Start:
With guest speaker, CSU Statewide Master Gardener Coordinator, Katie Dunker.

Future topics coming soon on the Sustainable for Life Program, Cut Flowers,
Fruit Trees, Season Extension Trials, The Ute Garden, Cool Season Crops and much more.
Stay tuned.

An equal access and equal opportunity University.

Tuesday, October 11, 2022

Creative Containers for Fall


By: Amy Lentz - Home Horticulture Educator - CSU Extension, Boulder County

It’s official, fall is finally here and cooler temperatures are ahead! As your summer annuals are beginning to look tired or may have stopped blooming altogether, now is the perfect time to revamp your flower containers.

Chrysanthemums, or more commonly just called mums, are probably the most common plant we think this time of year. There are two main types of mums, those sold inside of a florist or grocery that are not cold-tolerant (not hardy) and those that are sold seasonally outdoors which are cold-tolerant to our area (hardy mums). You will want to choose the ‘hardy’ type so that they can withstand the lower temperatures and can even handle a light frost. Choose plants with tight, unopened buds for longevity of the blooms. If we have another mild winter, you can plant your mums in the ground at the end of fall and there’s a slight chance it will come back again next year if they are the hardy type. Mums come in a wide range of colors including orange, red, yellow, purple, white and even burgundy so you can choose your favorite and mix them with other seasonal plants to create a festive display.

Chrysanthemums make a nice addition to your fall display!

When creating your fall containers, you can follow the classic “filler, spiller, thriller” method to get both height and fullness to your arrangement.

Save money by reusing annuals from your summer containers such as snapdragons, dusty miller, and marigolds if they are still holding up well. Other fall annuals to add to your containers include fall aster, ornamental cabbage, pansies, violas and even Swiss chard or kale (which are both tasty, too!). You might also find good deals on perennials this time of year which can also be added to your containers to add interest. Yarrow, butterfly bush, coneflower, black-eyed susan, and blanket flowers all have neat seed heads that can be interesting even after their petals are gone. If you want to get really creative, you can work in some succulents or small ornamental grasses to make it more unique. Tie it all together by displaying with pumpkins, gourds, and attractive branches from red-twig dogwoods, hawthorns or evergreens.

Once you have gathered your plants and are ready to put the container together, follow these general guidelines to help your containers last until the end of the season:

1.       You can use a number of different container types including plastic, glazed ceramic, terra cotta, wood crates, etc. Each will differ in their watering requirements and all should have at least one drainage hole at the bottom.

2.       Refresh the potting media by loosening it, adding 50% new mix and removing any old plant roots from the container.

3.       Be sure to break up any rootbound plants by gently teasing/pulling the root system apart with your fingers before planting. Even though it’s cooler, the plants will still grow but you can use a bit tighter spacing since the season is short.

4.       Add slow-release fertilizer at planting and water the container thoroughly once all plants are in place.

5.       If you are using perennials and want to overwinter them, you can plant them in the ground by late October and mulch well. Or you can simply bring the containers into an unheated garage or cool, dark space. Remember to water occasionally throughout the winter.

Example of a fall container using ‘Mesa Yellow’ blanket flower, burgundy and pink mums, orange marigolds, ornamental kale and a vining cold-hardy succulent. 

Containers are a fun and easy way to decorate for fall and make the most out of your space for the full growing season! For more information on fall gardening, visit or contact your local CSU Extension Office. 

Thursday, October 6, 2022

Favorite Fall Wildflowers

 by Yvette Henson, San Miguel Basin CSU Extension 

I am a person who transitions slowly but our extended fall season, with its azure-blue skies and golden- aspen, fall-color explosion eases the transition from glorious mountain summer to snowy, gray winter.  The tops of the mountains, where the tundra is, are green from June to mid-August until high-elevation frosty nights put an end to the fleeting summer wildflower show. Then the tops of the mountains turn from green to gold and finally to white.  

I'd like to share of few of my favorite wildflowers that lead up to and last through the seasonal shift from summer to winter.  I am cheered to see them return, year after year.

Gentiana parryi, Parry’s gentian, signals that summer is soon-to-end. The goblet-shaped blooms are a true blue, which is rare as a flower color.  It can be found July through September on the forest edge, in moist meadows and along stream banks at elevations between 7,500 and 13,200 feet. Look closely at the bloom to appreciate the detail!

A close-up Gentiana parryi bloom
(photo Yvette Henson)

Gentiana parryi plants
(photo Yvette Henson)

Rudbeckia laciniata var. ampla, cut-leaf coneflower, comes into bloom about the same time. I admire its stature, it's deeply lobed leaves and its domed center-disk with droopy ray flowers.  It weaves a ribbon along the creek bank of one of my favorite jeep roads.  It also grows in damp ditches.  It can be found from 5,000 to 9,000 feet elevation, late June through September.  I’ve collected seeds of this plant for our seed library but haven’t tried them at home because of my dry site.  However, I saw them featured in a British gardening publication, where they were grown in ‘regular’ garden conditions so I will give them a try next year.

Someone else enjoys Rudbeckia laciniata var. ampla almost as much as I do! 
(photo Yvette Henson)

Solidago velutina, velvet goldenrod, grows on its own in my yard.  It grows along the path to my door where it welcomes me home on summer evenings. I often sit down beside it just to watch the many pollinators enjoying its bright yellow blooms.  Velvet goldenrod begins blooming in late July and is still blooming at my house today.  When its flowers all wither, I know it is almost winter.  It does well in dry soil at elevations from 5,500 to 10,500 feet. 

Solidago velutina
(photo Yvette Henson)

There is an unidentified (to me) 'aster' that blooms all along the highway, through a local mountain town at almost 9,000.  Maybe it is really an Erigeron?  Or maybe it was a cultivated aster that escaped?  I have yet to figure it out.  The ray flowers are a deep purple, a much richer hue than the similar purple fall 'asters' that grow in other mountain communities near me.  I look for this particular aster each year.  I always say I am going to collect seed but since it’s an hour and a half drive from home, all its seeds have usually blown away before I make it back.

My favorite fall 'aster', growing in one of my favorite mountain towns
(photo Yvette Henson)

Gentiana algida, arctic gentian, blooms in the high alpine tundra after most of the summer blooms have faded.  The Flora of Colorado says it is one of the last plants to bloom in the alpine and can be found July-September, 10,000 to 14,000' elevation. The entire plant is rarely more than 6” tall, including the blooms, and to me it's like a magical fairy plant with its comparatively-large, tubular white flowers, streaked in purple and spotted in green.  

Gentiana algida -- perhaps I should call it 'farewell to summer' 
(Photo Yvette Henson)